Report: Phase 2
DII Report 97-2
August 31, 1997
Joseph Busch, Program Manager
The Getty Information Institute
Beth Sandore, Coordinator for Imaging Projects
Margaret Lewis, Graduate Research Assistant
The Digital Imaging Initiative*
The University of Illinois
at Urbana-Champaign Library
Table of Contents
Introduction and Scope of Work*
Project Development and Coordination*
Cultural Heritage Information in the Digital Environment*
The Concept of Global Cultural Memory*
Research on Existing Collections*
The Proof of Concept: Champaign County Cultural Memory*
Uses and Users*
Metadata and Structure*
Web Site and Database Development*
Database Structure and Development Tools*
Image as Signpost--Web Searching and Navigation*
Terms and Conditions of Access*
Evaluation and Feedback*
Summary of Results and Future Directions*
Appendix A: CCM Full Indexing Record*
Appendix B: Sample CCM Authorization Form*
Appendix C: Evaluation and Feedback Survey*
Introduction and Scope of Work
The Global Cultural Memory Project (GCM) grew out of a number of common forces that have been shaping a dialogue between cultural heritage institutions and technology developers. At the heart of this dialogue is the goal of providing broad networked access to cultural heritage information using innovative technology and taking advantage of collaborative work on standards development across participating communities. GCM begins to address the challenges of pursuing a unified access and deposit method to build a distributed repository of digital cultural heritage information. In early May 1997, Joseph Busch of the Getty Information Institute proposed that in conjunction with the Global Cultural Memory project the University of Illinois pursue the following work:
The proposed time frame for this phase of the project was May 15 - August 31, 1997. From May 15 through July 20, our energies were focused on the development of a proof of concept database of cultural heritage information from several different organizations. The proof of concept was a vehicle that enabled us to determine how further collaboration among cultural heritage institutions can be established and enabled through project coordination and technology development. Through the process of designing and building a database of cultural heritage information, we were able to address the goals of the project, and to provide a visual and conceptual framework for a demonstration digital library. A preliminary report (July 22, 1997) addressed the effort that was devoted to the database creation and the design of the interface and navigational framework. This report focuses on several points:
Project Development and Coordination
Cultural Heritage Information in the Digital Environment
The concept of sharing cultural heritage information in the digital environment has been under development for a number of years. In a recent presentation at the first Museums and the Web conference, Eleanor Fink, Director of the Getty Information Institute, created a scenario whereby a diverse community of users would be able to search and retrieve cultural heritage information across organizations, regardless of format:
In 2005, professors and students, curators and schoolchildren, you and I are able to search the online universe seamlessly as if the images and text about culture were available in one vast library of information. We can enter a query by artist's name, subject, or title of a work and retrieve images and related information no matter where the digital data reside -- in essence, our search erases the boundaries of time and place. Overcoming these barriers has enabled new and broader audiences to access cultural resources and construct their own stories for purposes of research, education, and enjoyment.
Visual resources in particular have become the initial frontier for sharing rich cultural heritage information—information that has heretofore been accessible only through temporary or permanent exhibits, or expensive print resources, or to the scholar who has permission to visit an archive and to examine the materials at close range. Art historian Barbara Stafford describes the differential treatment accorded to visual imagery over the centuries, and expresses the hope that the computer will be the tool that enables imagery to become a trusted, valued and rich vehicle (similar to text) for information delivery. Despite Stafford’s ambivalence, the significant levels of traffic on the web support the perspective that technology has begun to fuel an important shift in the value that society has previously placed on the written word over things visual. Computers and networking now enable users to incorporate images of art and other works into their own personal information contexts—images which have for centuries been a powerful and efficient medium for conveying landmark concepts, emotions, and events.
Education has been cited as an important area where enabling the use of visual resources and the process of teaching with these materials is becoming increasingly important. In the words of J. Carter Brown, Director Emeritus of the National Gallery of Art:
We are in a new age where the image can now be central, thanks to technology in large part. Images are around us…(T)oday, they have the potential to be as fundamental to education as words and numbers, adding significantly to the excitement, depth and relevance of what and how children learn.
Concurrently, evolving technologies offer enormous potential for connecting a broad user community with its cultural heritage. With current government and private support to increase the network infrastructure, this community will become even broader as we reach the millennium, encompassing elementary and secondary schools, museums and historical societies, library and information centers, workplaces, community organizations, and individual households. According to a recent study of alternative Internet access points conducted by MCI, libraries constitute a significant minority (36%) of places where users indicated they go to gain access to Internet resources, with museums offering a smaller, yet still accessible option for Internet access (5%). The MCI study predicts that, based on use patterns of the past several years, this trend to use cultural heritage organizations as Internet access points will increase.
"These public points of access are important because they help level the playing field. By the year 2000, nearly 30% of all Internet users could be accessing through alternative points," said Diane Strahan, Executive Director of Corporate Community Partnerships at MCI.
The fact that cultural heritage institutions will serve as alternative Internet access points presents further opportunity for creating programs and closing the loop between onsite and virtual collections.
While many recognize the importance of networking cultural heritage information, significant copyright and/or intellectual property issues remain to be resolved. In a recent interview, Clifford Lynch, Director of the Coalition for Networked Information, expresses his belief that ownership of images in the networked environment may be a bigger issue than in the print world as they are used across jurisdictions, and on an increased basis by the scholarly community. Lynch is particularly concerned that we approach the legislation in this area by describing the type of resources that we would prefer to see implemented in the networked environment, with this desiderata forming the basis for the legislation that ought to enable the use of these resources, rather than restrict it.
In summary, the information communities have reached a point of synergy between the interest in sharing cultural heritage information and the development of technology to enable this process. The GCM project explores these issues.
The Concept of Global Cultural Memory
The concept of the Global Cultural Memory (GCM) project grew from shared conversations that began on a bleak February day in 1997 at the University of Illinois between Beth Sandore, Coordinator for Imaging Projects, and Bruce Schatz, Director, the Digital Library Research Program. Soon thereafter Joseph Busch of the Getty Information Institute joined these conversations. Schatz committed his own perspective to a white paper, and proposed that an overarching structural framework be used, which was developed by Fernand Braudel in his work The Structures of Everyday Life.
Schatz pointed out that although our environment changes, the human condition remains much the same; therefore, comparing and contrasting the world as it has been over time and space could lend some understanding on the very personal level of what to expect in the new millennium.
The goal of GCM is to enable people to bring together the threads of cultural heritage information about common topics regardless of format or physical location. These various types of information can, for the first time, be brought together by powerful searching means over the Net. GCM in its fullest extent would include contributions from museums, libraries, schools, historical societies, community groups, and archives to distributed repositories of recent cultural memory materials, including text, images, sound and other media.
Several key objectives for the GCM project began to emerge from further discussions:
The goals of the current GCM report, as stated on page 3 of this document, were developed as a concrete beginning for a project with the potential for a considerable scope and depth of contribution and collaboration.
Research on Existing Collections
When GCM was originally discussed, it was suggested that the Getty Information Institute and the University of Illinois work collaboratively to identify and coordinate the participation of various types of cultural heritage institutions. It was also suggested that the Getty Information Institute might choose to focus its resources on the coordination of
local and national institutions and groups while the University of Illinois focus on regional and local institutions. Before GCM could move beyond the planning stages, we felt it was necessary to test its conceptual basis and its structure, and to establish relationships with collaborators from various types of institutions. To this end, we thought that the best way to identify interested participants was to launch a pilot project and to develop a working database that would serve as a proof of concept.
The Proof of Concept: Champaign County Cultural Memory
The Champaign County Cultural Memory database (CCM) serves as the proof of concept for the GCM project. The objective in building the database was to digitize and index eight images that referred to each of the eight themes for each of six decades, from the 1940s through the 1990s. Photographs of artifacts and various social, family, technology, and professional situations were incorporated. Within the CCM database, the user is able to browse images about particular themes, or within a particular decade, or perform a search for a specific theme in a specific decade. The database contains more than 300 images with text descriptions and controlled vocabulary as well as free text terms. Collaborating institutions include:
This cross section of institutions offered the pilot a variety of image formats and preservation qualities, from yellowed newspaper clippings to pristine black and white photographs, and a range of metadata for those images, from none at all to several paragraphs of written description.
Patricia L. Miller, Executive Director of the Illinois Heritage Association and a long-time resident of Champaign County, was so generous as to offer the project reproduction rights not only to her personal slides documenting local sites and events, but to the text of the 1983 book she co-authored with Willis Baker, A Commemorative History of Champaign County, Illinois, 1833-1983. Ms. Miller also lent the high-quality photographic proofs of the book to the Digital Imaging Initiative for scanning purposes and assisted DII staff in contacting the rights holders of those images. Without exception, the private individuals asked to grant permission for the use of their images were willing and enthusiastic about participating in the project. Several of the institutions contacted as a result of the book, including the Champaign County Farm Bureau and the Octave Chanute Aerospace Museum (formerly Chanute Air Force Base, which was activated in 1917 as Chanute Field and trained over two million air and ground personnel before its closure in 1993) have expressed great interest in further collaboration.
A second source of material for the Champaign County Cultural Memory database was the University of Illinois Archives. As well as offering a wealth of images documenting student and community life, the Archives provided the project with rich metadata for many of their contributions. For example, Archives staff offered not only the images for their recently curated exhibit, "A Byte of History: Computing at the University of Illinois," but allowed for their exhibit notes to be included in the database as well. The "featured sights" option from the CCM home page executes a search which re-collects the images and accompanying text from this exhibit, demonstrating how interactive repositories such as the Cultural Memory Project can re-extract and display materials from single contributors as well as juxtapose contributions across collaborating institutions.
The Champaign County Historical Archives of the Urbana Free Library also offered generous access to their photo collection, the bulk of which is the photography "morgue" of the Champaign-Urbana Courier Newspaper which chronicled local events from 1877 until it ceased publication in 1979. The collection is roughly organized: an uncontrolled vocabulary of subject headings identifies folders and those headings are accessed only through a finding aid which does not distinguish between photographic and textual information. However, selection of images was greatly eased by the collection knowledge and recommendations of the Historical Archives director, Jean Koch, and her staff of volunteers.
A final collection which complemented the strictly local images in the database with nationally-distributed media was the D'Arcy Advertising Collection of the University of Illinois Communications Library. This archive of tear sheets from magazines and newspapers includes approximately 750,000 advertisements from the 1880s through the 1980s. Inclusion of images such as 1960s dress advertisements provide national comparisons for the local advertisements and documentary photographs of the same period.
The Champaign County example offered a diverse microcosm of American post-war life, contrasting the development of supercomputing and aviation with the changes in small-town life brought about by social movements and agribusiness. In building the CCM web site, we were able to combine approaches to representing material and abstract notions of culture, contextual information, and objective documentation. These approaches are often used in isolation by archives, libraries, historical societies, and museums. By making cultural heritage materials searchable across repositories, the CCM database allows users to draw connections between objects from remote collections readily as a result of their own explorations.
Uses and Users
GCM was designed to enable users from a number of backgrounds to pose questions about common themes in everyday life in recent memory. For example, a second grader might like to find out about school teachers in the Urbana school system her mother had, or a high school student writing a paper on the first computer might like to see what it looked like and what kind of processing power it had. Similarly, a historian studying local effects of the civil rights movement could find pertinent information in the GCM database. GCM also documents changes in clothing styles, diet and food preparation, household appliances, and entertainment in the post-war period. By offering a collection of images from the recent past, GCM invites users of all ages from diverse backgrounds to draw connections between the documented past, the present as they know it, and the future which will evolve from this continuum of events.
Metadata and Structure
Current work on metadata standards in the fields of libraries, museums, and archives was reviewed before the framework for the GCM database was developed. We found this information useful since it will be imperative to work across several fields’ standards for metadata in order to integrate rich contextual information about texts, objects, audio, and video materials in GCM. Formal standards for working with structured and unstructured metadata have been under development across information-oriented disciplines. Structured metadata standards such as MARC for library materials have been in existence for some time, while those for museums are not as widely implemented or prescribed as in libraries and archives. The Museum Educational Site Licensing (MESL) project data dictionary represents one example of highly structured metadata. For unstructured metadata, SGML standards now exist such as the CIMI (Consortium for the Interchange of Museum Information) DTD for museum information and the EAD (Encoding for Archival Description) DTD for archival finding aids. The Dublin Core represents a standard for a general level of networked metadata creation to identify electronic resources. Further, the availability of rich vocabularies such as the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT) will undoubtedly enhance the searching and retrieval of cultural heritage information.
Several controlled vocabularies and classification schemes have been used or recommended as standards for categorizing the content of original works, such as the Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH), the Thesaurus of Graphic Materials (TGM), ICONCLASS, Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA), and Nomenclature for Museum Cataloguing. The recent work of the Getty Information Institute that has made the AAT and other vocabulary resources accessible through the web has sparked the potential for further standardization of term use within existing databases, as well as the development of innovative approaches to using controlled vocabularies as front-end searching tools for collections.
Work toward developing descriptive standards for digital representations in this area, particularly in the arts, has been under way for some time. The Visual Resources Association (VRA) has developed a list of "core categories" for describing visual resources which covers information about the original object, its creator(s) and the surrogate digital image. The VRA core categories were developed so that they reference the corresponding MARC cataloging fields, and so that they correspond to the Categories for the Description of Works of Art, developed by the Getty Information Institute and the College Art Association. The VRA core also takes into account the use of controlled vocabulary subject and name terms. The work of this group addresses an overarching framework of three general categories of image file description, including two categories that are used to describe the original object and who created it, and a category of information used to describe the surrogate or digital file for the object. Online Computer Library Center (OCLC), in collaboration with the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI), has sponsored a series of workshops over the past two years that have focused on the development of a core of elements that can be used as metadata to describe digital information. In 1995 a set of thirteen metadata elements, labeled the "Dublin Core," was developed by this group.
Bearing the above work in mind, we created a relational database for GCM indexing that could accommodate hierarchical as well as polyhierarchical relationships and many:one, one:many relationships among components. The database structure can also support full text entry and indexing. A structured indexing record was created using several guidelines -- the Dublin Core, the Museum Educational Site Licensing (MESL) data dictionary, and the Getty Art Information Task Force's Categories for the Description of Works of Art (CDWA). A detailed example of a full indexing record is attached. (Appendix A, "CCM Full Indexing Record") A field for "object type" will soon be added. Images were indexed using a combination of controlled vocabularies: the Library of Congress Thesaurus for Graphic Materials (TGM), the Getty Art and Architecture Thesaurus (AAT), and the Library of Congress Subject Headings (LCSH). Several controlled vocabularies were used in order to enable rich and in-depth description of objects, events, people, and places. In addition to the indexing fields, each record also contains a field for related full text. The objective of creating this type of record was to experiment with a record structure of descriptive fields that were used across museums, libraries, and archives, and were considered by professionals to be essential and pertinent information to accompany the images. Further, there was an interest in building a record structure or structures that could accommodate information in diverse formats. In addition to the fielded indexing structure, a sub-table accommodating full text (tagged with content and format tags) was also incorporated into the database design, but was not implemented in this phase of the database development. This enables the establishment of links from one or more images to in-depth corresponding textual information.
Web Site and Database Development
Database Structure and Development Tools
The GCM Web site acts as a gateway to a relational database containing metadata records and pointers to images. The web pages and database are housed on a Windows NT server in the Digital Imaging Initiative Laboratory, housed in the Grainger Engineering Library at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign. The search engine behind the web site was developed using Allaire's Cold Fusion Application Server which allows flexible searching interaction with the database of text descriptions and images over the web. This approach is considered state-of-the-art development software and is compatible with numerous web programming applications. The database framework that we have developed is highly extensible—it can accommodate the addition of other types of media objects (audio, video, vrml) as well as a variety of information formats. We have tested and confirmed that the database and search engine can be expanded to interoperate with and to search across multiple networked repositories regardless of geographic location. The technology that supports the delivery and access to the GCM database has a new development cycle of six months to one year on the average. If GCM is expanded, there will be a critical need to invest in scaleable, cutting-edge technology development tools in order to maintain a state-of-the-art system.
Photographs and illustrations were scanned on a flatbed scanner at 75 dpi (dots per inch), a resolution which yields good-quality images for web access. The images were saved as TIFF (Tagged Image File Format) files. The TIFF files were resized for reasonable delivery across the web and saved as JPEG (Joint Photographic Experts Group) format derivative images. Minimal image processing filters were used to edit the resulting digital files.
Image as Signpost--Web Searching and Navigation
A primary design feature of the CCM database is the use of images to convey an understanding of common themes and widely-recognized events, people, or objects. Time and the themes representing the structures of everyday life are portrayed in picture montages. These montages and guide buttons serve as the navigational as well as the basic searching tools for the user of the database. On the GCM top page, the template with the GCM logo brings together the images of Main Street, U.S.A. and the globe to convey the theme of commonality and shared memory from the local to the global level. The centerpiece for the top GCM page is an image of three muses, representing ethnic diversity and the confluence of the past, the present, and the future of memory in a global sense. From the top GCM page the user can opt to learn more about GCM, or to enter the Champaign Cultural Memory (CCM) proof of concept database.
Upon entering the CCM database, the user is presented with an image montage that integrates several images from the CCM collections, including a portion of a map of Champaign county as a parameter that provides geographic and spatial orientation. From that page, there are four options: 1) learn more about GCM; 2) provide feedback about the project or ask questions; 3) view a featured collection of images from the CCM database; 4) enter the database and begin exploring the actual collections. Once inside the collections, the user is introduced to two main navigational tools—an image banner that is a chronology of each decade from the 1940s through the 1990s (the horizontal header), and button bars with the terms for each of the eight structures of everyday life (the left-most vertical banner). To provide occasional or new users with a sense of what they might find in the database under each category and decade, we have placed a brief sampler of images that replays itself at regular intervals in the center of the page. This sampler is an animated .gif which displays eight images from the CCM collections, each from a randomly-chosen decade.
Moving further into the database, if the user chooses a theme, for example, "communication," the proceeding page will include an image montage of the six decades (1940s - 1990s) which is composed of images that characterize well-known objects, people, places, or events related to the theme of communication. An image montage of the theme as represented over the six decades has been created for each theme that represents a structure of everyday life. These templates are generic—they include information that is commonly identifiable to the general public, the intent of which was to characterize that theme within a decade. If we take the example of the theme of communication, the image montage contains the following discrete images: a woman in a period hat dialing one of the first wall-mounted telephones in the 1940s; a television in the 1950s; Malcolm X speaking persuasively before a crowd in the 1960s; a hand holding a micro-cassette recorder in the 1970s; a stock trader talking on two telephone lines and consulting his computer simultaneously for the 1980s; and the navigational hand pointer that is the sign of the URL link on the web for the 1990s. If the user chooses a decade, s/he will confront a montage of themes within that decade.
Through the CCM proof of concept database, the challenges and the opportunities of incorporating controlled vocabulary into users’ search strategies were also explored. In order to provide readily accessible entry vocabulary, a list of hot-linked controlled vocabulary terms appears at the top of the search page for each category. In addition, hot-linked controlled vocabulary subject terms appear within each full indexing record so that users can view other records that bear the same subject terms. In essence, linking from a subject term in a single record executes a search behind the scenes that retrieves all the items that contain indexing in which this same term appears.
In addition to the assignment of controlled vocabulary subject terms, one or more of the eight category terms was assigned to each image during the indexing process. One of the goals of the project was to test the usefulness of the eight categories representing the structures of everyday life. Feedback from the CCM contributors suggests that there is a need to further develop the categories (or another structure that serves this purpose) as organizing principles so that they provide users with more specific information as to their content. As discussed in the section "Metadata and Structure," it would be useful to integrate existing vocabulary tools (e.g., AAT, TGM, Nomenclature for Museum Cataloguing) into the categories in future GCM development, where appropriate, to add depth and specificity to these categories.
The CCM database incorporates current software technologies into its web interface and search engine. This search engine, combined with the picture montages that act as graphic navigational bars, provides users with several options for initiating searches within the collection. Previous research in the use of text-based online systems suggests that easily understood navigational tools contribute to successful search results. The presence of a search function in the CCM pilot appealed to the collaborators because it makes the collections easily accessible to the focused researcher as well as to the casual browser. While all of the collaborating institutions maintain their own web sites, all of them are primarily text-based and none of them provides a powerful retrieval mechanism.
As GCM expands and the database size increases, more powerful search and retrieval tools will undoubtedly be needed. GCM serves as one example of the rich environment that exists at the University of Illinois to support innovative software and applications development. Depending on the directions in which GCM development moves, there is strong potential for future collaboration with the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA) software development and outreach programs, and projects such as the NSF/ARPA/NASA Digital Library Initiative which have yielded strong models for powerful searching tools in the sciences that could be migrated to the arts and humanities realm. Further, the arts and humanities offer a rich context for exploration in the area of information visualization. We have begun that investigation by integrating visual navigation tools into the CCM pilot database, and would like to continue working on scaleable visualization models for databases of much larger proportions. There is strong potential for further technology development collaboration within the museum and other communities as well.
Terms and Conditions of Access
In the CCM pilot project, we negotiated the terms and conditions of access to the images that comprise the database with each of the organizations or individuals who owned the materials. Attached is an example of an authorization form. (Appendix B "CCM Authorization Form") In a database of over 300 images, approximately 50 images required that individual permissions be obtained. The perspective of the collaborating institutions and individuals has been uniformly positive and supportive of the GCM mission. In every case that we have encountered to date, individuals and organizations which supplied images have been more than willing to have their materials displayed. The few permissions which remain outstanding are those for which the original rights holder is deceased or defunct and the present rights holder is yet to be identified.
A second set of images for which we are in the process of obtaining permissions is those included in the navigational montages. In collaboration with the graphic designer who created the images, we will cite the original source of each manipulated image and, when the original publication is not so dated as to be within the public domain, obtain permission from its copyright owner for inclusion in the project. The University of Illinois Campus Publishing Services Office has been engaged to obtain written permission for each of the approximately 90 images incorporated in the montages. Should any of the rights holders deny reproduction permission, the images will be replaced.
As GCM scales up, it would be prudent to identify the various types of terms and conditions relationships in which the project may want to become involved, considering the addition of relationships with museum image consortia such as the nascent AMICO, or with other text and multimedia content holders who might wish to collaborate or contribute to the project.
Evaluation and Feedback
We envision that collaborators as well as users will help shape the structure of the GCM/CCM project. We have begun to share the URL for the database with our collaborators and to elicit informal feedback from them about the structure, content, and design of the project. From a more formal perspective, we are in the process of incorporating a user feedback option in the form of an online survey and comment box which is easily accessible from almost any point in the Champaign County Cultural Memory database. (Appendix C "Evaluation and Feedback Survey") This information will be collected and analyzed throughout the 1997-98 academic year. We are interested in knowing whether the themes of structure and chronology facilitate user exploration and discovery in the archive, what users are interested in viewing, how they intend to use the resources they have found, and whether they can contribute additional contextual information to the project. Demographic information is also requested, but not required for submitting feedback. The information collected shall be analyzed in such a way that it will not reveal the identity of individual respondents, unless they wish to be contacted for follow-up interviews.
Summary of Results and Future Directions
We have found that the Global Cultural Memory project, as represented by the Champaign County Memory pilot database, has immediate appeal to potential collaborators. Current participants could understand both the goals and the organizing themes of the archive. Given these themes participants were able to identify materials in their collections that they felt ought to be represented in CCM. However, it is clear that we need to examine ways to enhance the utility of these themes as the database grows. Further, participants were enthusiastic about integrating their materials with similar information from other institutions. In this sense, building an archive using these organizing principles overcomes traditional format and content barriers.
In this phase of the GCM project, we have accomplished the objectives that were outlined for the project, including building a proof of concept database; exploring collaboration on building a digital repository with diverse cultural heritage institutions; and identifying the critical components to launching a large-scale GCM project--content, structure and organization, integrating diverse formats, web searching and navigation, and terms and conditions of access.
GCM could serve as a model for cultural heritage information sharing on an international as well as a national basis. Several avenues of scaleable development exist. These include expanding the current database by identifying participants with strong potential; developing instructional applications in conjunction with GCM; identifying related projects with other cultural heritage collaborators that would employ use of the most up-to-date metadata standards.
As mentioned earlier, a provisional metadata record was created using a combination of data elements from the Dublin Core and the Categories for the Description of Works of Art. Since the CCM proof of concept involved our own creation of a format it is likely that as GCM continues to grow we will need to participate in current efforts toward format integration in the museum, library, and archival communities, most notably the Dublin Core discussions, as well as Project REACH, sponsored by the Getty Information Institute and the Research Libraries Group.
However, gathering feedback and suggestions at this critical time before the expansion of GCM could prove invaluable and could only serve to strengthen the project’s impact and achievable goals. Conversations about GCM could take place in a number of venues, and might include representatives from the museum, library, and archival communities, publishers, the international and national cultural heritage information communities, technologists, and interested people from subject areas such as history, cultural area studies, K-12 education and outreach, community organization and information access programs.
It is clear from the Champaign County proof of concept project that GCM has the potential to appeal to a broad range of cultural heritage institutions, as well as to other interested groups. There is great potential for collaboration on content and on technology development through the Global Cultural Memory project. The above areas have been identified in order to spark discussion about future areas of development and growth. We have a strong interest in and commitment to further discussion and analysis of these options.
Appendix A: CCM Full Indexing Record
Appendix B: Sample CCM Authorization Form
Authorization to Use Text and Photographs from:
Description of Materials/Collection
On behalf of institution, I, director/curator, grant permission for Beth Sandore, Coordinator for Imaging Projects in the Digital Imaging Initiative at the University of Illinois Library, to use text and images from the referenced photograph collection in conjunction with a pilot project to develop a database of text and images that depicts recent cultural memory in Champaign County, from 1940-1997. In cases where the images or text are owned by organizations or individuals other than my organization, and the rights holder is known to my organization, I will provide the University of Illinois with that information. Nevertheless, we can take no responsibility for violations of ownership rights or copyright that may occur as a result of its providing images for this project. Whenever images from our collection are used, their source must be attributed. A general attribution to institution needs to be made in the database. If other images in the database are attributed individually, the ones from our collection should be marked "Courtesy of institution." I understand that this material will be made accessible over the World-Wide-Web, from a server in the University Library, and that institution shall have the option of including a link to this exhibit and database from our web site.
Appendix C: Evaluation and Feedback Survey
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